Ever had a glass of wine that came highly recommended but was underwhelming to you, or have you been disappointed by a wine you had loved previously? Maybe the wine simply wasn’t served in a way that allowed it to shine. Temperature and glassware can significantly affect a wine’s aromas and flavors, as can the practice of decanting. Understanding how and why will help you decide what’s best for your particular wine and occasion.
When it comes to serving temperature, a wine should be just right. Too hot and the wine’s alcohol will be emphasized, leaving it flat and flabby. Too cold and the aromas and flavors will be muted and, for reds, the tannins may seem harsh and astringent. Too often, white wines are served straight out of a refrigerator while reds are opened at a toasty room temperature, neither of which are ideal. The Serving Wine Temperature Chart in this post provides a more in-depth look at serving temperatures per varietals, but here are some general guidelines:
Quick Fix: Need to Warm Up or Cool Down?
Need a quick fix? If the wine is too warm, immerse it in a mix of ice and cold water—this chills a bottle more quickly than ice alone because more of the glass is in contact with the cold source. It may take about 10 minutes for a red to 30 minutes for a Champagne. You can even stick a bottle in the freezer for 15 minutes. (Don’t forget it though or it may freeze and push the cork out!)
If the wine is too cold, decant it into a container rinsed in hot water or immerse it briefly in a bucket of warm water—but don’t try anything with high heat. If the wine is only a little cold, just pour it into glasses and cup your hands around the bowl to warm it up.
Keep in mind that a wine served cool will warm up in the glass, while a wine served warm will only get warmer. It’s always better to start out a little lower than the target temperature.
Wine Spectator, How to Serve Wine 101, Website
Savvy Nomad, Wine Serving Temperature Chart, Website
Image Source: Decanter.com.
Champagne has long been seen a symbol, not a beverage. It is athletes celebrating under a rush of foam, ships being christened, wedding toasts and New Year’s Eves. It is secured by a twisted wire cage affixed over a bulging cork—a medieval security system standing between you and a permanent eye patch. Champagne is dominated by foreign names you’re not sure how to pronounce—Moët, Veuve, Ruinart—and labels adorned with family crests and calligraphy, and it is always served in flutes. However, the age of the Champagne flute could be over as wine experts declare that wider glasses are the best way to enjoy fizz. Flutes are popular because they showcase tiny, rising bubbles perfectly – the enduring and visualized appeal of sparkling wine’s power to refresh. Many flutes even have a discreet nucleation point etched into their inner base to create a steady, vertical stream of fizz.
The flute also has other advantages: it preserves the effervescence that so easily dissipates in coupes and saucers. It is also much harder to spill your precious bubbles in a flute, while its serving size is ideal for parties. The truth is the shape doesn’t do justice to fine fizz. In the past ten years, a change has been brewing, one that aligns Champagne more closely with the rest of the wine world. Instead of the flute—the iconic, slender stemmed glass synonymous with the sparkling wine—Champagne producers, sommeliers and marketers alike are now recommending that we drink our Champagne from white wine glasses.
From Coupes to Saucers to Flutes…
This isn’t the first time the rules have been changed. For the first 300 years of its life, Champagne was served in coupes—the wide, flat glasses that have now taken up permanent residence in the craft cocktail scene. Though considered a complete failure by contemporary standards—the wide surface area allows effervescence to disappear quickly and the open mouth discourages any aroma development—coupes were well suited to sparkling Champagne in its early days, when aggressive perlage was considered uncouth. Up until the early 20th century, in fact, glasses were often accessorized with a small whisk or forked stirrer that could be used to speed the dissipation of the bubbles.
Antonio Galloni, a wine critic and founder of website Vinous, speaks for many in the hallowed French region when he says: “If you go to Louis Roederer or Dom Perignon, no winemaker is going to say, ‘Here’s my wine; taste it out of a flute.’ It’s not used at all”.
“There is something nice about the flute,” Galloni allows. “It’s like a skyscraper. There’s something elating and uplifting about that long glass. But if you drink a really well-made wine out of a flute, it’s like wearing a shoe that’s a size too small.”
The Perfect Glass?
While Champagne houses used either own-devised tulips or white wine glasses, it took a sommelier to lift the idea from the winery cellar into consumers’ hands.
He took his idea to local glass manufacturer Lehmann and together they created an elongated glass, rounded in the middle and tapering towards the top. At its widest point, their Grand Champagne glass measures 88mm, and even the most modest of the series, the Initial, measures 72mm.
Jamesse discovered later, together with Gérard Liger-Belair, a physicist at the University of Reims, that ‘the spherical shape of the glass, which also encourages vertical movement, respects the role of the mousse’.
Each bubble carries aroma to the surface. In his glasses this is a ‘progressive extension along the curve of the glass which favours first a gradual then a stretched ascent, allowing each bubble to burst at the widest point to free its flavours and express aromatic subtlety’.
The greater surface allows more bubbles to burst simultaneously while their aromas are captured within the tapering top. ‘We introduced the glass in the restaurant in 2008,’ Jamesse recounts. ‘Initially diners were a little shocked, but once they tasted from it they realised the difference.
Image Source: Decanter.com. Left to Right: Jamesse Grand Champagne glass;Riedel Veritas Champagne Wine glass; Zalto Dank’Art Universal glass
So next time you pop a cork, celebrate the wine as much as the occasion – in a proper glass, finally giving Champagne the chance to shine!
1. “The Tragic Flute: Why You’re Drinking Champagne All Wrong”. Bloomberg, web <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-12-15/the-tragic-flute-why-you-re-drinking-champagne-all-wrong.html>
2. “Farewell to Champagne Flutes in 2016?”. Decanter, web < http://www.decanter.com/learn/farewell-to-champagne-flutes-in-2016-286743/>
3. “Coupe d’État: The Rise and Fall of the Champagne Flute”. PUNCH, web < http://punchdrink.com/articles/coupe-detat-the-rise-fall-of-the-champagne-flute/>
This month, we are so excited to highlight Robert Desbrosse, one of our favorite producers from our Cellarage Portfolio-Wine Cellarage’s exclusive portfolio of hand-selected wines. We believe that sharing our stories, as well as the stories of the wines we carry, is a vital responsibility we have to you, our valued customers.
For generations, the Desbrosse family has perpetuated the art of the vine, as evidenced by this old postcard from 1908. The grapes come exclusively from their plots and they oversee all stages, from Production to Marketing. Composed of Chardonnay, Pinot Meunier and Pinot Black, the south-facing slopes provide optimal sunshine. Every September, forty pickers pick the grapes by hand. The hand picking preserves the grapes whose juice, promises a pure champagne and an excellent quality.
The Desbrosse family continues to use the traditional Barrel Aging method, allowing the Champagne to breathe and subtly refine through the maturation process. The Champagnes do not undergo malolactic fermentation; this choice reflects their desire to preserve freshness and naturalness.
Recommendations from Robert Desbrosse on how to best enjoy their Champagnes:
1. Use a Champagne flute
Because of its elongated shape, the flute carefully retains the flavor of the Champagne and better presents the fragrance when tasting. It also preserves the effervescence of the Champagne.
2. Ideal Temperature to Consume
Champagne will offer you the best of himself, when served at 8-10°C (46-50°F), not frozen. Using a champagne bucket will maintain the ideal temperature throughout the meal.
3. Storage conditions
To preserve their character, the Champagne bottles must be maintained:
-Away from light (especially, sun light)
-Immune to temperature variations
-Stored horizontally, so that the cork is continuously wet and can ensure the sealing of the bottle.
Find our curated selection of Champagnes from this incredible producer, including tasting notes, here!
About our Cellarage Portfolio:
“When we started selling wine five years ago, we started out small. With the help of our loyal customer base, we have grown. We have come to a point where we feel that it is imperative to reward you, the customer, for that growth. The best way that we see to do that is to source wines directly from the domains. Members of our team are traveling to Europe, forging friendships with winemakers and tasting their wines, with them, at their cuveries. We are handpicking the best wines for you. Back in New York, our tasting panel gets together and tastes the wines again before making final decisions. Then, we ship our selections in temperature-controlled containers directly from the winemaker’s cave to our cellars in New York”.
Champagne Robert Desbrosse, Website
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines “DECANT” as a transitive verb:
1: to draw off (a liquid) without disturbing the sediment or the lower liquid layers
2: to pour from one vessel into another
What should we decant?
Old and young wines! Red and white! Decanting introduces oxygen back into the wine, which helps release more pleasant flavors and scents (it can also help remove bottle stink caused by sulphur preservatives). Most wines can benefit from a bit of aeration and decanters allow for a larger surface area of wine to have contact with oxygen. Careful though! Decanting a wine too much can ruin it.
Why do we decant?
Older wines are decanted to separate the liquid from the bitter sediment that may have formed in the bottom of the bottle, but don’t need to breathe for a long time. Older wines should be opened close to when they are being consumed. Young wines can be closed and tight on the palate, so they are decanted to aerate, soften, and open up. Younger wines, depending on how strong they are, can be decanted from as little as a few minutes to as much as 6+ hours.
How long do we decant?
There’s no hard fast ruling as to how long a wine should be decanted. Generally, the safest way to know when your wine is ready is to taste it along the way—just remember, you can always decant the wine a bit more, but you cannot de-decant it! A wine left in the decanter for too long will take on vinegar-y traits. Older wines don’t need as much time, so a good rule of thumb is 30 minutes. Full bodied wines can be decanted as long at 3+ hours and medium bodied wines should be good after about 1 hour. Too many bubbles in your young champagne? Serve it in a larger glass like for a Burgundy or coupe glass. The more surface area, the easier it is for bubbles to escape.
Your decanting: whether you should or not, and if so for how long, is up to you—basically, if it tastes good, drink it!
If you’re anything like me, you might have seen the word “cru” on a label and either not given it a second thought or were completely influenced by the words “grand” or “premier”. I studied French for a few years, so I can understand that “Premier Cru” translates to “first growth” and “Grand Cru” translates to “great growth”, but what do those mean?
Let’s break it down.
Remember the monks in Burgundy who had all that time to study and record their findings of the wine produced on the church’s land? Well, over time they began to recognize and figure out which vines and locations were producing consistently great wines each year. These areas became known as “crus”. Grand Cru – “great growth” – is the highest level of classification of vineyard. These wines are the “most treasured and expensive wines in Burgundy and rank among the most costly wines in the world”. There are less than 50 Grand Cru vineyards in Burgundy. Premier Cru – “first growth” – is the second highest level of classification of vineyard. There are hundreds of Premier Cru vineyards. Then we have Village wines (using grapes only grown in the specified village) and Burgundy Reds and Whites (simple regional wines).
In Bordeaux it gets a bit more complicated. In 1855, Napoleon III wanted the chateau owners to rank their wines for the World’s Fair in Paris. Naturally, this caused a stir among the owners and it fell to the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce to come up with a solution. Under the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification, the chateaus were organized into groups according to their prestige and pricing. There are five classifications, starting with Premier Cru (most expensive; ie Margaux, Latour, Haut-Brion), Deuxième Cru (Second Growth)…all the way to Cinquième Cru (Fifth Growth). There is some opposition to the fact that the rankings have stayed the same since 1855. How can you judge a chateau today on the wine it was making over a hundred years ago? There have been attempts to change the system, but mostly due to the inability to agree, the classifications hold strong. The winemakers believe that “wine drinkers…will find their way to the best wines no matter what”.
So, next time you are choosing wine and looking over the label, remember that there is a deep history behind those words and maybe you can be the judge of whether these long standing chateaux deserve their Grand Cru classification.
MacNeil, Karen. “Bordeaux.” “Burgundy.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 127-130, 193. Print.
Peanut Butter and Jelly, Spaghetti and Meatballs, Wine and Oak…
…All things that bring out the best in each other. Scary to think, but without oak barrels, many of the wines we love would not exist. Thanks to oak (there’s no natural or manmade substitute), we are able to strengthen, deepen, and intensify our wines. Other trees (pine, cherry, chestnut, etc.) have been tested, but they do not have the same ability to transform the wines as oak does.
So, why do we choose oak barrels to store most of our wine in over man-made alternatives? Not only are they strong, supple, and leak-proof, there are also forests filled with oak in Europe and America. Wine was originally stored in clay pots, but the clay would often break and they were not easily moved. Barrels came onto the scene providing a stronger storage vessel and their already wheel-like shape made for easier transportation. An advantage to using oak is that it introduces hints of vanilla, almond, tea, tobacco, and clove into the wine. It also allows for some oxygen to slowly seep into the wine, which leads to a smoother mouth feel and increase in color.
French oak vs American oak? Good question! French oak tends to give off more subtle flavors and aromas, whereas American oak is a touch sweeter and gives stronger notes of vanilla.
New barrel vs recycled barrel? New barrels have a stronger more intense flavor imparted into the wine. After about four to six years, the oak gives off fewer flavors and can be used to store wine.
Timing in oak? There is no specific time allotment for each wine to spend in a barrel. It is up to the winemaker’s preference and depends on the grape variety and the strength of the wine going into the barrel. For example, Pinot Noir can be ready after one year in a barrel, a regular brunello di Montalcino must be aged for 4 years (two of which must be in oak by law), and Spanish Riojas can spend as much as 10 years in a barrel for the smooth, intense, vanilla characteristics Riojas are known for.
It is truly amazing how oak can affect our wine, and thankfully the winemakers out there understand the subtle art of barreling so that we can enjoy the many wonders of what oak has to offer.
MacNeil, Karen. “Bordeaux.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 40-45. Print.
“Oak Aging and Wine (Part 1).” “Oak Aging and Wine (Part 1). N.p., n.d. Web 21 Mar. 2016 <http://www.beekmanwine.com/prevtopah.htm>.
- New World wines are usually named for the grape varietal used (or at least the predominant grape in the bottle).
- Old World wines are usually named after the region they were made in.
Did you know that Pinot Noir and Red Burgundy are the same type of wine? Confusing, I know!
Most wines are named in two different ways:
- The grape they are made from
- The region they are made in
The wine name depends on where you are buying your wine. For example, in the New World wines (“newbies” to the wine making traditions: United States, Australia, New Zealand), the wines are named after the predominant grape varietal in the bottle. If Pinot Noir grapes were used to make 75% of the wine, and the winemaker blended other grapes for the remaining 25%, then you are drinking a Pinot Noir according to the New World rules.
The Old World wines (think places with a long history of making wine: France, Italy, Spain) are more traditional. A wine made mostly of Sangiovese in Chianti will be called Chianti instead of Sangiovese. Winemakers in the Old World stick to regional names because they feel the region has as much to add to the success of the wine as the grape.
- Bordeaux: “au bord de l’eau” – “along the waters”
- 80% of wine produced is red
Bordeaux is the largest fine-wine region in the world. It is larger than all of Germany’s vineyards put together, and ten times larger than all of New Zealand’s vineyards. Bordeaux supplies about 700 million bottles of wine a year, 80% of which are red wines. Known for wine that can age for many years, Bordeaux’s location is a huge factor in why the wines are so well received.
Located near the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by three rivers and many small streams, water places a crucial part in the Bordeaux wines we know and love. The name Bordeaux comes from “au bord de l’eau” French for “along the waters”. Bordeaux vines benefit from the mild and balanced weather provided by the Gulf Stream-warmed ocean and three large surrounding rivers. The waters are aided by the pine forests to the south and west which block potential frosts, cold snaps, and summer storms.
Both red and white Bordeaux wines are usually a blend of two or more grape varietals in order to get the more complex flavors associated with the Bordeaux region. Not all grapes blend well together, but Bordeaux seems to have had the best blending techniques and recipes all figured out for quite some time!
80% of the wines produced are red. There are 5 red grapes used that are usually blended: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, and Petit Verdot. The two main red grapes used are Merlot (fleshy and round) and Cabernet Sauvignon (structured). Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon balance each other nicely, and the tannins of the cabernet sauvignon help act as a preservative, which is why Bordeaux wines can age for a long time.
White Bordeaux can be a blend of Muscadelle, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Ugni Blanc. The main grapes blended are Semillon (dry and heavy) and Sauvignon Blanc (crisp and floral). Semillon is known as the “soul of white Bordeaux” and when aged can becomes creamy with a hint of honey. The Sauvignon Blanc is the opposite of Semillon: wild and zesty. Together they create a beautifully balanced and complicated white wine.
MacNeil, Karen. “Bordeaux.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 118-23. Print.
A great food and wine match up and the Chablis Grand Cru Les Preuses is open for business and drinking perfectly right now!
Here at our wine shop, we were lucky enough to enjoy a visit and tasting with Luca Martini di Cigala of the prestigious San Giusto a Rentennano, a family owned wine estate that lies in the southern most area of the Chianti Classico region. San Giusto a Rentennano is a certified organic wine producer and practices careful hand harvesting. The estate has been in the Martini di Cigala family since 1914, passed to Enrico Martini di Cigala in 1957 and then inherited by Enrico’s nine children in 1992. Today, six of the nine children are partners in the estate, including Luca.
Luca Martini di Cigala was a wonderful guest and brought us the estate’s 2010 vintage ‘Percarlo’ to taste! Among Tuscany’s most prominent red wines, Percarlo sits within the top tier and has consistently surpassed expectations since its inaugural release in 1983. Pure, 100% Sangiovese has perhaps never tasted so good. Percarlo is crafted from the estate’s very best Sangiovese grapes, which are hand selected bunch by bunch from the best areas of the family’s vineyards.
The precious grapes that make Percarlo are chosen from low-yielding vines, then pressed and macerated for a lengthy 18 days before an additional 20 months in barrique plus 6 months in bottle. The resulting nectar is bottled unfiltered for a truly pure expression. In the best years, only 1,600 cases of Percarlo are produced…The 2010 vintage for Italy is considered one of the best vintages ever.
My tasting note for 2010 Percarlo: A beautiful bouquet of rich red fruits, roses, exotic spices and herbal notes. On the palate, the texture is velvety with fine grained tannins. There is a mineral presence in the wine that gives great depth and energy. Approachable now, the classic structure makes this one for the ages!
Not only did we taste with Luca Martini di Cigala, he was kind enough to sign some of the large format bottles that we have for sale in our New York based wine store. In addition to signing our bottles, he also signed the original wood cases for our magnum bottles. These photo taken here in our temperature-controlled wine warehouse, where our entire retail wine shop inventory is stored in perfect conditions. More photos from the signing below…