Ever had a glass of wine that came highly recommended but was underwhelming to you, or have you been disappointed by a wine you had loved previously? Maybe the wine simply wasn’t served in a way that allowed it to shine. Temperature and glassware can significantly affect a wine’s aromas and flavors, as can the practice of decanting. Understanding how and why will help you decide what’s best for your particular wine and occasion.
When it comes to serving temperature, a wine should be just right. Too hot and the wine’s alcohol will be emphasized, leaving it flat and flabby. Too cold and the aromas and flavors will be muted and, for reds, the tannins may seem harsh and astringent. Too often, white wines are served straight out of a refrigerator while reds are opened at a toasty room temperature, neither of which are ideal. The Serving Wine Temperature Chart in this post provides a more in-depth look at serving temperatures per varietals, but here are some general guidelines:
Quick Fix: Need to Warm Up or Cool Down?
Need a quick fix? If the wine is too warm, immerse it in a mix of ice and cold water—this chills a bottle more quickly than ice alone because more of the glass is in contact with the cold source. It may take about 10 minutes for a red to 30 minutes for a Champagne. You can even stick a bottle in the freezer for 15 minutes. (Don’t forget it though or it may freeze and push the cork out!)
If the wine is too cold, decant it into a container rinsed in hot water or immerse it briefly in a bucket of warm water—but don’t try anything with high heat. If the wine is only a little cold, just pour it into glasses and cup your hands around the bowl to warm it up.
Keep in mind that a wine served cool will warm up in the glass, while a wine served warm will only get warmer. It’s always better to start out a little lower than the target temperature.
Wine Spectator, How to Serve Wine 101, Website
Savvy Nomad, Wine Serving Temperature Chart, Website
Image Source: Chateau Margaux
Bordeaux is typically defined by its complex appellation system, where wines are characterized by their specific districts of origin. But every wine connoisseur knows that the key to understanding Bordeaux is to focus on the best producers. The first and most famous classification of Bordeaux producers was the 1855 Classification of the Médoc and Graves, which ranked some five dozen estates. It was originally based on Chateau reputation and the prices paid by wine merchants at the time, and is still a surprisingly accurate measure of quality, however, it should be emphasized that a wine or appellation can still be outstanding even if it is not a part of these classifications!
In 1855, Napoleon III, emperor of France, decided to throw a Universal Exposition in Paris, a kind of world’s fair, and wanted all the country’s wines represented. He invited Bordeaux’s Chamber of Commerce to arrange an exhibit. The members of the chamber knew a hornet’s nest when they saw one, so they passed the buck. They agreed, according to their records, to present “all our crus classés, up to the fifth-growths,” but asked the Syndicat of Courtiers, an organization of wine merchants, to draw up “an exact and complete list of all the red wines of the Gironde that specifies in which class they belong.”
The courtiers hardly even paused to think; two weeks later, they turned in the famous list. It included 58 châteaus: four firsts, 12 seconds, 14 thirds, 11 fourths and 17 fifths. They expected controversy. “You know as well as we do, Sirs, that this classification is a delicate task and bound to raise questions; remember that we have not tried to create an official ranking, but only to offer you a sketch drawn from the very best sources.”
Curiously, all of the courtiers’ selections came from the Médoc, with the single exception of Haut-Brion (they also ranked the sweet white wines of Sauternes and Barsac). It’s not that other wine regions weren’t active; the Graves boasted a much longer history, and Cheval-Blanc in St.-Emilion and Canon in Fronsac were highly regarded by the early 19th century. But the 18th century revolution in wine quality took hold first and most firmly in the Médoc.
Since 1855, many changes have occurred in the châteaus’ names, owners, vineyards and wine quality, and because of divisions in the original estates, there are now 61 châteaus on the list. But if an estate can trace its lineage to the classification, it retains its claim to cru classé status. The only formal revision came in 1973, when after half a century of unceasing effort Baron Philippe de Rothschild succeeded in having Mouton elevated to first-growth.
—Excerpted from an article by Thomas Matthews
Château Lafite Rothschild Pauillac
Château Latour Pauillac
Château Margaux Margaux
Château Haut-Brion Pessac, Graves (since 1986, Pessac-Leognan)
Château Mouton-Rothschild (became a first-growth in 1973) Pauillac
Château Rausan-Segla (Rauzan-Segla) Margaux
Château Rauzan-Gassies Margaux
Château Léoville Las Cases St.-Julien
Château Léoville Poyferré St.-Julien
Château Léoville Barton St.-Julien
Château Durfort-Vivens Margaux
Château Gruaud-Larose St.-Julien
Château Lascombes Margaux
Château Brane-Cantenac Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Pichon-Longueville-Baron Pauillac
Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande (Pichon-Longueville-Lalande) Pauillac
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou St.-Julien
Château Cos-d’Estournel St.-Estèphe
Château Montrose St.-Estèphe
Château Kirwan Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château d’Issan Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Lagrange St.-Julien
Château Langoa Barton St.-Julien
Château Giscours Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Malescot-St.-Exupéry Margaux
Château Cantenac-Brown Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Boyd-Cantenac Margaux
Château Palmer Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Lagune Ludon (Haut-Médoc)
Château Desmirail Margaux
Château Calon-Ségur St.-Estephe
Château Ferrière Margaux
Château Marquis-d’Alesme-Becker Margaux
Château St.-Pierre St.-Julien
Château Talbot St.-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru St.-Julien
Château Duhart-Milon Rothschild Pauillac
Château Pouget Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Tour Carnet St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Lafon-Rochet St.-Estèphe
Château Beychevelle St.-Julien
Château Prieuré-Lichine Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Marquis de Terme Margaux
Château Pontet-Canet Pauillac
Château Batailley Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas Pauillac
Château Dauzac Labarde (Margaux)
Château Mouton-Baronne-Philippe (Château d’Armailhac after 1989)Pauillac
Château du Tertre Arsac (Margaux)
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral Pauillac
Château Pédesclaux Pauillac
Château Belgrave St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Camensac (Château de Camensac) St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Cos-Labory St.-Estèphe
Château Clerc-Milon Pauillac
Château Croizet-Bages Pauillac
Château Cantemerle Macau (Haut-Médoc)
Château d’Yquem Sauternes
Château La Tour Blanche Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey Bommes (Sauternes)
Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Château Clos Haut-Peyraguey) Bommes (Sauternes)
Château de Rayne-Vigneau Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Suduiraut Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Coutet Barsac
Château Climens Barsac
Château Guiraud Sauternes
Château Rieussec Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Rabaud-Promis Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Sigalas-Rabaud Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Myrat (Château de Myrat) Barsac
Château Doisy-Daëne Barsac
Château Doisy-Dubroca Barsac
Château Doisy-Védrines Barsac
Château d’Arche Sauternes
Château Filhot Sauternes
Château Broustet Barsac
Château Nairac Barsac
Château Caillou Barsac
Château Suau Barsac
Château de Malle Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Romer (Château Romer du Hayot) Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe Sauternes
Wine Spectator, Modern ABCs of Bordeaux, Website
Wine Spectator, The 1855 Bordeaux Classification, Website
You may have heard of the Rhone Valley in France; however, if you’re thinking of this as one place serving similar wines you’d be very mistaken.
In France‘s Rhone Valley you’ll find 98% of the wines are either red or rose, although there are a few whites here and there. As stated above, Northern and Southern Rhone are extremely different from each other in climate, soil, grape varietals, terroir and soil, leading to very different wines.
While the Northern Rhone’s steeply terraced hillside and granite soil mixed with stone, shingle and clay and produces only a few grape varietals — mainly Syrah and Viognier — and sells single varietal wines, Southern Rhone is much flatter and is known for its blends of many different grapes. It’s also worth pointing out that despite the fact Northern Rhone is much smaller in size — it makes up less than 10% of the Rhone Valley — you’ll typically get a much better quality, with everything being done by hand as machines can’t maneuver the terraced landscape. Vines are also situated closer to the river, with a continental climate, great sun exposure and shelter from bitter mistral winds.
In Southern Rhone, the climate goes between continental and Mediterranean, with mild winters and hotter summers. Unlike in Northern Rhone, they’re barely protected from the mistral winds, although after the vines suffer they’re often cooled down which allows for a higher acidity, as well as an intensity in flavor due to the ice the wind produces (similar to ice wine).
If you want to differentiate Northern and Southern Rhone in terms of grapes, Northern Rhone is Syrah and Southern Rhone is largely influenced by Grenache. That’s not to say that other grapes don’t grow in either of these areas, but these are the dominant varietals.
In Northern Rhone there are six types of wines you’ll find. First is the Côte Rôtie, meaning “roasted slope,” which is made with Syrah that offers characteristic notes of raspberry, spice, coffee, truffles, violet and chocolate. With a decadent description like that, there’s no wonder Côte Rôtie tends to be expensive, but worth it.
Next is Condrieu, which only permits the use of Viognier grapes and, interestingly, almost went extinct at one time due to its low yielding tendency and easily destructible nature. At its peak, Viognier produces delicious notes of peach and honey; however, if the grapes are picked when too ripe the wine loses its acidity and will have a bubblegum scent.
Another wine you’ll find in Northern Rhone is Cornas, where only Syrah is produced. The wine is leathery and earthy, reminiscent of a fine Bordeaux. Keep in mind, this wine is meant to be aged for seven to 10 years, at which point it will open up and reach its full potential.
Saint-Joseph, Crozes-Hermitage and Hermitage are all wines that make use of Syrah, Marsanne and Roussanne, and are typically of very high quality. Interestingly, in Victorian Times Hermitage was “the wine of the world.” It needs a minimum of 10 years in a cellar, although reds can be aged for 50+ years and whites for 25+. While this wine is a bit pricey with bottles starting at $60, you’ll literally be savoring a bit of French heritage. Note: Don’t get this confused with Crozes-Hermitage, which is typically ready to drink when released.
While Northern Rhone is known for having the higher quality wines, Southern Rhone still has its fair share of noteworthy options. Châteauneuf-du-Pape is the most southern appellation in Southern Rhone, growing Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Clairette, Grenache Blanc and Cinsault. It is the reds produced here that are often considered synonymous with Southern Rhone, veering from the typical high alcohol, very sweet, low acid, easy-drinking wines that come from a Mediterranean climate, but instead tend to be dense, bold, earthy and often gamey and wild from the Mourvedre. Some of the best producers in this region include Domaine du Pegau, Font de Michelle and Chateau Beaucastel, to name a few.
Côtes du Rhône and the Côtes du Rhône Villages is the largest appellation of the Rhone, making up 4/5 of the region. While they make a number of great wines — mainly in dry form — because this area is not a single place, but instead is very spread out, you’ll get an array of terroirs and qualities. Some of the top quality Côtes du Rhône wines include Rasteau, Chateau Beaucastel and Jean-Luc Colombo.
In Vacqueyras and Gigondas, Grenache, Syrah and Mourvedre are the main grapes. Despite having the same grapes and being located near to each other, the wines of these appellations do differ slightly. While Vacqueyras are bold and lean toward Syrah, Gigondas tend to be more rustic and almost chewy with a focus on Grenache and lots of raspberry, spice and leather.
In Lirac you’ll find these grapes, as well as Cinsault. The wines here are typically full-bodied reds offering decadent flavors of cocoa and dark fruits. And for those who enjoy rose, Tavel is the place for you. Using Cinsault and Grenache, the appellation produces a high alcohol rose wine with notes of berry and spice and a bone-dry finish. If you’re used to mass-produced roses — I’m looking at you Beringer White Zinfandel — you’ll be very surprised by this wine.
It is really all about going out there and discovering what you like, there is really a room for everyone in the Rhone Valley!
Epicure & Culture,Jessica Festa, Website
Image Source: Decanter.com.
Champagne has long been seen a symbol, not a beverage. It is athletes celebrating under a rush of foam, ships being christened, wedding toasts and New Year’s Eves. It is secured by a twisted wire cage affixed over a bulging cork—a medieval security system standing between you and a permanent eye patch. Champagne is dominated by foreign names you’re not sure how to pronounce—Moët, Veuve, Ruinart—and labels adorned with family crests and calligraphy, and it is always served in flutes. However, the age of the Champagne flute could be over as wine experts declare that wider glasses are the best way to enjoy fizz. Flutes are popular because they showcase tiny, rising bubbles perfectly – the enduring and visualized appeal of sparkling wine’s power to refresh. Many flutes even have a discreet nucleation point etched into their inner base to create a steady, vertical stream of fizz.
The flute also has other advantages: it preserves the effervescence that so easily dissipates in coupes and saucers. It is also much harder to spill your precious bubbles in a flute, while its serving size is ideal for parties. The truth is the shape doesn’t do justice to fine fizz. In the past ten years, a change has been brewing, one that aligns Champagne more closely with the rest of the wine world. Instead of the flute—the iconic, slender stemmed glass synonymous with the sparkling wine—Champagne producers, sommeliers and marketers alike are now recommending that we drink our Champagne from white wine glasses.
From Coupes to Saucers to Flutes…
This isn’t the first time the rules have been changed. For the first 300 years of its life, Champagne was served in coupes—the wide, flat glasses that have now taken up permanent residence in the craft cocktail scene. Though considered a complete failure by contemporary standards—the wide surface area allows effervescence to disappear quickly and the open mouth discourages any aroma development—coupes were well suited to sparkling Champagne in its early days, when aggressive perlage was considered uncouth. Up until the early 20th century, in fact, glasses were often accessorized with a small whisk or forked stirrer that could be used to speed the dissipation of the bubbles.
Antonio Galloni, a wine critic and founder of website Vinous, speaks for many in the hallowed French region when he says: “If you go to Louis Roederer or Dom Perignon, no winemaker is going to say, ‘Here’s my wine; taste it out of a flute.’ It’s not used at all”.
“There is something nice about the flute,” Galloni allows. “It’s like a skyscraper. There’s something elating and uplifting about that long glass. But if you drink a really well-made wine out of a flute, it’s like wearing a shoe that’s a size too small.”
The Perfect Glass?
While Champagne houses used either own-devised tulips or white wine glasses, it took a sommelier to lift the idea from the winery cellar into consumers’ hands.
He took his idea to local glass manufacturer Lehmann and together they created an elongated glass, rounded in the middle and tapering towards the top. At its widest point, their Grand Champagne glass measures 88mm, and even the most modest of the series, the Initial, measures 72mm.
Jamesse discovered later, together with Gérard Liger-Belair, a physicist at the University of Reims, that ‘the spherical shape of the glass, which also encourages vertical movement, respects the role of the mousse’.
Each bubble carries aroma to the surface. In his glasses this is a ‘progressive extension along the curve of the glass which favours first a gradual then a stretched ascent, allowing each bubble to burst at the widest point to free its flavours and express aromatic subtlety’.
The greater surface allows more bubbles to burst simultaneously while their aromas are captured within the tapering top. ‘We introduced the glass in the restaurant in 2008,’ Jamesse recounts. ‘Initially diners were a little shocked, but once they tasted from it they realised the difference.
Image Source: Decanter.com. Left to Right: Jamesse Grand Champagne glass;Riedel Veritas Champagne Wine glass; Zalto Dank’Art Universal glass
So next time you pop a cork, celebrate the wine as much as the occasion – in a proper glass, finally giving Champagne the chance to shine!
1. “The Tragic Flute: Why You’re Drinking Champagne All Wrong”. Bloomberg, web <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-12-15/the-tragic-flute-why-you-re-drinking-champagne-all-wrong.html>
2. “Farewell to Champagne Flutes in 2016?”. Decanter, web < http://www.decanter.com/learn/farewell-to-champagne-flutes-in-2016-286743/>
3. “Coupe d’État: The Rise and Fall of the Champagne Flute”. PUNCH, web < http://punchdrink.com/articles/coupe-detat-the-rise-fall-of-the-champagne-flute/>
This month, we are so excited to highlight Robert Desbrosse, one of our favorite producers from our Cellarage Portfolio-Wine Cellarage’s exclusive portfolio of hand-selected wines. We believe that sharing our stories, as well as the stories of the wines we carry, is a vital responsibility we have to you, our valued customers.
For generations, the Desbrosse family has perpetuated the art of the vine, as evidenced by this old postcard from 1908. The grapes come exclusively from their plots and they oversee all stages, from Production to Marketing. Composed of Chardonnay, Pinot Meunier and Pinot Black, the south-facing slopes provide optimal sunshine. Every September, forty pickers pick the grapes by hand. The hand picking preserves the grapes whose juice, promises a pure champagne and an excellent quality.
The Desbrosse family continues to use the traditional Barrel Aging method, allowing the Champagne to breathe and subtly refine through the maturation process. The Champagnes do not undergo malolactic fermentation; this choice reflects their desire to preserve freshness and naturalness.
Recommendations from Robert Desbrosse on how to best enjoy their Champagnes:
1. Use a Champagne flute
Because of its elongated shape, the flute carefully retains the flavor of the Champagne and better presents the fragrance when tasting. It also preserves the effervescence of the Champagne.
2. Ideal Temperature to Consume
Champagne will offer you the best of himself, when served at 8-10°C (46-50°F), not frozen. Using a champagne bucket will maintain the ideal temperature throughout the meal.
3. Storage conditions
To preserve their character, the Champagne bottles must be maintained:
-Away from light (especially, sun light)
-Immune to temperature variations
-Stored horizontally, so that the cork is continuously wet and can ensure the sealing of the bottle.
Find our curated selection of Champagnes from this incredible producer, including tasting notes, here!
About our Cellarage Portfolio:
“When we started selling wine five years ago, we started out small. With the help of our loyal customer base, we have grown. We have come to a point where we feel that it is imperative to reward you, the customer, for that growth. The best way that we see to do that is to source wines directly from the domains. Members of our team are traveling to Europe, forging friendships with winemakers and tasting their wines, with them, at their cuveries. We are handpicking the best wines for you. Back in New York, our tasting panel gets together and tastes the wines again before making final decisions. Then, we ship our selections in temperature-controlled containers directly from the winemaker’s cave to our cellars in New York”.
Champagne Robert Desbrosse, Website
The idea of wine storage, or cellaring, may evoke images of a vast cellar filled with dusty bottles of priceless vintage Bordeaux… overwhelming to say the least. The truth is that, unless you have a large collection of fine wines that you’re planning to cellar for years, anyone looking to store wines for a later date can do so by learning a few things about proper wine storage. We have put together a list of the most common myths surrounding wine cellaring:
Myth #1: All wines benefit from cellaring
The most important thing to remember regarding cellaring wine is that most wine isn’t meant to be cellared. The huge majority of the world’s wines don’t have what it takes to age for decades. Most wines are meant to be enjoyed in the first one to five years of their lives and even those wines that have the potential to develop slowly over many years will achieve their potential only if they’re properly stored.
Aged wine is better wine
Everyone who is passionate about wine should know how old wine tastes. It’s not that old wine is better, it’s just different; any older wine delivers a different spectrum of flavors from what you would taste in a young wine. Even if you are a novice wine-taster, a properly aged wine will taste and feel very different from the younger version.
Only red wines are worth aging
Certain white wines—vintage Champagne, Sauternes, German Rieslings, and even some dry white wines from places as diverse as the Loire Valley, western Australia, and southern Spain—are just as age-worthy as any reds.
Finally, most wines, even cellar-worthy ones, are delicious upon release. The better wines will age well for up to a decade. Rare indeed are wines that need a decade or more to reach their peak. Always remember, it is better to drink a wine a year too soon than a day too late.
Myth #2: I need to have a built-in wine cellar in order to store wines at home
You do not need to have an in-home wine cellar to store your wines. If you haven’t been blessed with a cool, not-too-damp basement that can double as a cellar, you can improvise with some simple racks in a safe place. Rule out your kitchen, laundry room or boiler room, where hot temperatures could affect your wines, and look for a location not directly in line with light pouring in from a window. You could also buy a small wine cooler and follow the same guidelines: If you keep your wine fridge in a cool place, it won’t have to work so hard, keeping your energy bill down.
Perhaps there is a little-used closet or other vacant storage area that could be re-purposed for storing wine? If you have a suitable dark, stable space that’s not too damp or dry, but it is too warm, you might consider investing in a standalone cooling unit specifically designed for wine. There are some inexpensive systems for small spaces, but in most cases, this is getting into professional wine storage.
When is it time to upgrade your storage conditions? Ask yourself this: How much did you spend last year on your wine habit? If a $1,000 cooling unit represents less than 25 percent of your annual wine-buying budget, it’s time to think about it more carefully, might as well protect your investment.
One other piece of advice from collectors: Whatever number you’re thinking of when it comes to bottle capacity, double it. Once you’ve started accumulating wines to drink later, it’s hard to stop.
Myth #3: White, sparkling and red wines should be stored at different temperatures
There is a big misconception in the wine world that white, sparkling and red wines should be stored at different temperatures. The fact of the matter is that ALL wine (red, white, sparkling, fortified, etc.) should be stored at between 53-57 degrees F, 55 degrees F often cited as close to perfect. This allows the wine to evolve and age as the winemaker intended, if it is indeed a wine meant for aging.
Myth #4: Wines bottles need to be stored horizontally
Traditionally, bottles have been stored on their sides in order to keep the liquid up against the cork, which theoretically should keep the cork from drying out. This is hazardous to your wine because if a cork starts to dry out, it will start to let air inside, causing premature oxidation. If you’re planning on drinking these bottles in the near to mid-term, or if the bottles have alternative closures (screw caps, glass or plastic corks), this is not necessary. We will say this, however: horizontal racking is a space-efficient way to store your bottles, and it definitely can’t harm your wines.
Myth #5: Serious, storage-worthy wines are always sealed with cork
Not all that long ago, this statement was true, but it’s no longer the case. Screw-off caps are still the closure on large “jug” bottles of those old-fashioned, really inexpensive domestic wines, but that type of wine is a dying breed. Meanwhile, sleek and modern screw-off caps have come on the scene as the closure of choice on many bottles of fine wine, especially white wines, from all over the world.
In addition, research in New Zealand has proven that wines can age and develop in bottles closed with screw caps, as wine does in cork-sealed bottles.
In a nutshell, if you’re looking to buy wines to mature, as a collector or as an investment, you should really consider investing in professional-grade storage. For everyone else, following the above guidelines should keep your wines safe until you’re ready to drink them. Enjoy!
1. “How to Store Wine 101: 7 Basics You Need to Know”. Wine Spectator, web
2. “Ask Dr. Vinny”. Wine Spectator, web
3. “Do I Need A Dual Zone Or Single Temperature Zone Wine Fridge?”. Wine Enthusiast, web
4. “Wine Myths Debunked” . Wine Enthusiast, web
5. “Ten Wine Myths Debunked”. For Dummies, web
6. “What’s Up With That: Why some wines taste better with age”. Wired, web
7. “Wine Aging Chart for Reds and Whites”. Wine Folly, web
8. “Tips on Storing Wine” .Wall Street Journal, web
9. “How to Properly Store Wine”. Reader’s Digest, web
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines “DECANT” as a transitive verb:
1: to draw off (a liquid) without disturbing the sediment or the lower liquid layers
2: to pour from one vessel into another
What should we decant?
Old and young wines! Red and white! Decanting introduces oxygen back into the wine, which helps release more pleasant flavors and scents (it can also help remove bottle stink caused by sulphur preservatives). Most wines can benefit from a bit of aeration and decanters allow for a larger surface area of wine to have contact with oxygen. Careful though! Decanting a wine too much can ruin it.
Why do we decant?
Older wines are decanted to separate the liquid from the bitter sediment that may have formed in the bottom of the bottle, but don’t need to breathe for a long time. Older wines should be opened close to when they are being consumed. Young wines can be closed and tight on the palate, so they are decanted to aerate, soften, and open up. Younger wines, depending on how strong they are, can be decanted from as little as a few minutes to as much as 6+ hours.
How long do we decant?
There’s no hard fast ruling as to how long a wine should be decanted. Generally, the safest way to know when your wine is ready is to taste it along the way—just remember, you can always decant the wine a bit more, but you cannot de-decant it! A wine left in the decanter for too long will take on vinegar-y traits. Older wines don’t need as much time, so a good rule of thumb is 30 minutes. Full bodied wines can be decanted as long at 3+ hours and medium bodied wines should be good after about 1 hour. Too many bubbles in your young champagne? Serve it in a larger glass like for a Burgundy or coupe glass. The more surface area, the easier it is for bubbles to escape.
Your decanting: whether you should or not, and if so for how long, is up to you—basically, if it tastes good, drink it!
“Rosé is a wine that should ideally be drunk within two or three years of being made; it is not for keeping, but memories of drinking rosé tend to last much longer. On a shady terrace; around an herb-scented barbecue; outside a café on market day; before lunch by the pool – it accompanies some of life’s most pleasant moments. Perhaps that should be marked on every bottle…” – Peter Mayle, Provence A-Z
I’m not talking about wine coolers or white zinfandel, I’m talking about delicious rosés: the cool, delicate, versatile wine that can hold up to basically everything you pair it with.
It is believed that some of the first wines in ancient times were rosés because they were quickly and easily made and did not require the more modern wine-making tools (i.e. large vats, sturdy presses, etc.). Rosé juice spends as little as a few hours to a couple of days on the skins to produce its light pink color.
From deep raspberry to the lighter rose petal, a rosé’s color indicates how long the grapes have been left to macerate in the juice and skins. A darker rosé spends more time on the skins, and will have a richer, more savory tannic taste. A lighter, more mineral forward rosé could have only spent a few hours macerating before it was pressed and moved into a separate bin to continue to ferment. Another, less common, way of achieving the color is the “saignée” (bleeding) process. Some juice is taken from a fermenting red wine vat in the beginning of the fermentation process. The juice taken will be turned into rosé, while the remaining vat of fermenting red grapes’ flavor will intensify.
Winemakers, especially in France, do not have specific bottle requirements, so the bottles’ labels and shapes can appeal to our lighter more whimsical sides. You may have also noticed that a lot of rosés are screw caps…don’t be discouraged! Screw caps do not indicate cheap wine, but more so encourage the consumer to easily open a bottle of rosé on a whim (without having to worry about where that corkscrew went!).
I am a firm believer that rosé can be enjoyed year round (hey, we drink white in the winter, no?), but for the traditionalists out there, now that the weather is warming up, maybe you would like to swap your deep reds for a nice, crisp, fruity rosé!
MacNeil, Karen. “France.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 266, 312. Print.
“Rosé Wines of Provence: Ten Fun Facts.” Marvellous Provence. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2016. <http://www.marvellous-provence.com/gastronomy/drink/wine/rose-wine-ten-fun-facts>
If you’re anything like me, you might have seen the word “cru” on a label and either not given it a second thought or were completely influenced by the words “grand” or “premier”. I studied French for a few years, so I can understand that “Premier Cru” translates to “first growth” and “Grand Cru” translates to “great growth”, but what do those mean?
Let’s break it down.
Remember the monks in Burgundy who had all that time to study and record their findings of the wine produced on the church’s land? Well, over time they began to recognize and figure out which vines and locations were producing consistently great wines each year. These areas became known as “crus”. Grand Cru – “great growth” – is the highest level of classification of vineyard. These wines are the “most treasured and expensive wines in Burgundy and rank among the most costly wines in the world”. There are less than 50 Grand Cru vineyards in Burgundy. Premier Cru – “first growth” – is the second highest level of classification of vineyard. There are hundreds of Premier Cru vineyards. Then we have Village wines (using grapes only grown in the specified village) and Burgundy Reds and Whites (simple regional wines).
In Bordeaux it gets a bit more complicated. In 1855, Napoleon III wanted the chateau owners to rank their wines for the World’s Fair in Paris. Naturally, this caused a stir among the owners and it fell to the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce to come up with a solution. Under the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification, the chateaus were organized into groups according to their prestige and pricing. There are five classifications, starting with Premier Cru (most expensive; ie Margaux, Latour, Haut-Brion), Deuxième Cru (Second Growth)…all the way to Cinquième Cru (Fifth Growth). There is some opposition to the fact that the rankings have stayed the same since 1855. How can you judge a chateau today on the wine it was making over a hundred years ago? There have been attempts to change the system, but mostly due to the inability to agree, the classifications hold strong. The winemakers believe that “wine drinkers…will find their way to the best wines no matter what”.
So, next time you are choosing wine and looking over the label, remember that there is a deep history behind those words and maybe you can be the judge of whether these long standing chateaux deserve their Grand Cru classification.
MacNeil, Karen. “Bordeaux.” “Burgundy.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 127-130, 193. Print.
Peanut Butter and Jelly, Spaghetti and Meatballs, Wine and Oak…
…All things that bring out the best in each other. Scary to think, but without oak barrels, many of the wines we love would not exist. Thanks to oak (there’s no natural or manmade substitute), we are able to strengthen, deepen, and intensify our wines. Other trees (pine, cherry, chestnut, etc.) have been tested, but they do not have the same ability to transform the wines as oak does.
So, why do we choose oak barrels to store most of our wine in over man-made alternatives? Not only are they strong, supple, and leak-proof, there are also forests filled with oak in Europe and America. Wine was originally stored in clay pots, but the clay would often break and they were not easily moved. Barrels came onto the scene providing a stronger storage vessel and their already wheel-like shape made for easier transportation. An advantage to using oak is that it introduces hints of vanilla, almond, tea, tobacco, and clove into the wine. It also allows for some oxygen to slowly seep into the wine, which leads to a smoother mouth feel and increase in color.
French oak vs American oak? Good question! French oak tends to give off more subtle flavors and aromas, whereas American oak is a touch sweeter and gives stronger notes of vanilla.
New barrel vs recycled barrel? New barrels have a stronger more intense flavor imparted into the wine. After about four to six years, the oak gives off fewer flavors and can be used to store wine.
Timing in oak? There is no specific time allotment for each wine to spend in a barrel. It is up to the winemaker’s preference and depends on the grape variety and the strength of the wine going into the barrel. For example, Pinot Noir can be ready after one year in a barrel, a regular brunello di Montalcino must be aged for 4 years (two of which must be in oak by law), and Spanish Riojas can spend as much as 10 years in a barrel for the smooth, intense, vanilla characteristics Riojas are known for.
It is truly amazing how oak can affect our wine, and thankfully the winemakers out there understand the subtle art of barreling so that we can enjoy the many wonders of what oak has to offer.
MacNeil, Karen. “Bordeaux.” The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Pub., 2001. 40-45. Print.
“Oak Aging and Wine (Part 1).” “Oak Aging and Wine (Part 1). N.p., n.d. Web 21 Mar. 2016 <http://www.beekmanwine.com/prevtopah.htm>.